The digital transformation of society is affecting crime, criminals and criminal investigation. New cyber criminal methods using advanced technical tools and exploitation are an opportunity for criminals and a challenge for investigators. Technically complex illegal activities are being sold as services to less skilled criminals, increasing the challenge of fighting cybercrime. On the other hand, criminals face challenges trying to hide and avoid attribution. The large amount of digital traces stored across multiple locations creates an opportunity for criminal investigators.
Crime scenes are also changing. With the growth of cybercrime, crime scenes are becoming virtual, global, and multi-jurisdictional. Investigating a trans-national cyber crime scene requires investigative tools to remotely gather information, and also collaboration between entities in both the public and private sectors.
Modern physical crime scenes have a comprehensive set of digital evidence sources. In addition to PCs and notebooks, digital evidence traces can be found in mobiles, IoT devices, automobiles, smart control systems, data stored with cloud providers, and distributed on servers across the Internet. With the increase in digital and online payment systems, financial transactions are also becoming an important digital evidence source, especially in financially motivated crimes like fraud.